Before you get into any details of treatments and procedures it is vital to know what exactly bone marrow is. Well, bone marrow is soft, springy tissue inside the bones that generate hematopoietic stem cells. These stem cells usually develop into healthy red blood cells, white blood cells and even that of platelets. A bone marrow or stem cell transplant do replacement of stem cells that are faulty, cancerous or destroyed by chemotherapy or radiation. You can go to the bone marrow transplant hospitals in India and find out the treatments and talk to specialists in details regarding your case.
What is the basic difference between a bone marrow transplant and that of a stem cell transplant?
You know what the terms “bone marrow” and “stem cell” are at times used interchangeably. Since bone marrow is the foundation of hematopoietic stem cells, and healthy stems cells are what the patients require. However, there’s a technical difference related to the donation procedures. In a bone marrow transplant, the stem cells are gathered from a donor’s bone marrow. While under general anesthesia, the donor’s bone marrow is reaped directly from the hip bones via a large needle.
In a peripheral blood stem cell transplant or PBST, stem cells get harvested from a donor’s blood via a procedure known as apheresis. Donors get medication for five days that enhances stem cell generation. This procedure, which harvests stem cells from the bloodstream, is quite similar to a blood donation. Similarly, there is also another kind of stem cell transplant and it uses hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood. This is something that parents agree to donate to a public cord blood bank for making use of by a matching patient in need. In all the instances, the final product that the patient gets is stem cells.
Who requires a bone marrow/stem cell transplant?
This is a question that might be already bothering you right? In the typical sense the patients diagnosed with lymphoma, leukemia, myelodysplasia, multiple myeloma, severe blood diseases and specific type of immune deficiency diseases could benefit from a transplant. A patient’s primary care doctor or general doctor and an oncologist (cancer specialist) or even hematologist (blood specialist) are going to recommend the finest treatment options.
What’s the difference between allogeneic and that of autologous transplants?
Well, an allogeneic transplant (“allo” means “other”) demand stem cells from a donor. A donor should have a similar HLA tissue kind as the patient. There is a one in four chance that the biological sibling of a patient will be a good match. A match could also be found through a national registry.
In the autologous transplant (“auto” simply means “self”), a patient’s own stem cells get collected from the blood and frozen. It is just like similar to the way donors are going to be. At times a patient could receive anti-cancer drugs first to diminish the possibility of cancer cells getting picked up together with the stem cells.
In both kinds of transplants, the patient gets high doses of chemotherapy or radiation to abolish cancer. Finally, the stem cells — either the patient’s own or donors are melted and given to the patient, where over time they shall grow and create healthy blood cells.
The kind of transplant a patient is going to get will depend mostly on the illness being treated. Other important factors are the age of the recipient and their health, the stage, and status of the ailment, the capability to collect and treat the patient’s stem cells, and the availability of a donor. Also, for elderly, more fragile patients, transplants that do not make use of high-dose chemotherapy and radiation (known as “mini-transplants”) could be a feasible option.
What are the dangers and advantages of bone marrow or that of stem cell transplants?
In allogeneic transplants, the stem cells received from healthy donors are cancer-free and could fight any remaining cancer cells. However, there is a risk that the donor’s immune cells could attack the healthy cells of the patient. To diminish this risk, patients are generally given drugs to overpower their immune system. However, a weakened immune system might lead to a serious infection.
In autologous transplants, since a patient’s own stem cells get used, there is no danger of graft-versus-host ailment. There is also a diminished risk of infection. However, there is a possibility that the cancer cells of the patient might contaminate the stem cells. However, being the patient or the layperson these things might sound too complicated to you right? The point is you have to trust your doctor and its better you go to a good doctor in the hospitals like bone marrow transplant hospitals in India and get the best possible treatment done.
Potential Uses Of Stem Cells
Thus, it gets important that you don’t hesitate when it comes to cancer or bone marrow transplantation.
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