Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Seizures are due to the brief disturbance in the electrical functions of the brain. In this article, you will get complete information about Epilepsy, causes of epilepsy, types of seizures, diagnosis, and treatment.
Epilepsy affects both male and females and all age group
When a person experiences seizures, it does not necessarily indicate that they have epilepsy, there are many possible reasons that a seizure could happen.
When someone is diagnosed with epilepsy, it indicates that they have had seizures (usually 2 or more) and they are considered to have increased risk of future seizures due to the brain-related cause.
More than 50 million people are suffering from epilepsy globally.
10 million people live with epilepsy in India.
What are the causes of Epilepsy??
There are many reasons which can cause epilepsy. These are as follows –
Neurological infections – If somebody has infections in their brain, there may be a probability that there will be the disturbance of electrical functions disturbance.
Head Injuries – Head injuries due to a car accident or any other accident can a cause of epilepsy.
Stroke – Stroke can damage the brain in many ways and affect the people in negative ways. Stroke may affect the emotions, mobility, communication, behavior, and memory of the people. If a stroke survivor faces recurrent seizures after the stroke that could be epilepsy.
After stroke epilepsy is very common.
Genetic Inheridity – Some types of epilepsy and seizures happened because of the gene. It has been found that certain genes are more sensitive to seizures or epilepsy. So there may be chances that if you have a family history of epilepsy then this can be one reason for you for epilepsy.
Brain Tumors – Structural changes in the brain like a brain tumor can affect the growth of brain cells and disturb the electrical functions of the brain and can cause seizures or recurrent seizures that is called epilepsy.
Brain Damage From Prenatal – Before Births baby is more sensitive to Brain Damage. There are many cases when the baby brain does not develop properly because of infections in mother, poor nutrition and oxygen deficiency. This can be one of the reasons for epilepsy.
- Stress or Anxiety
- Lack of sleep or tiredness
- Irregular meals( or skipping meals) which may cause low blood sugar.
- Heavy alcohol intake or using street drugs.
- Flickering lights such as from strobe lighting.
- Periods( menstruation).
- Illnesses which cause a high temperature (fever) such as flu or other infections.
What are the symptoms of epilepsy
There are symptoms has been reported in the case of epilepsy
- Sudden falls
- Blank spells
- Unexplained incontinence or urine with loss of awareness, or in sleep
- Involuntary jerky movements of limbs
- Odd events occurring in sleep eg.- Fall from the bed, jerky movement
- The episode of confused behavior with impaired consciousness.
What are the types of seizures
There are different kinds of seizures. Learn each and every one
1. Focal seizures: (Partial seizures)
When seizures appear to the result from abnormal activity in just one area of your brain, they are called Focal(Partial) seizures. These seizures fall into two categories.
- Simple Partial Seizures:
These seizures do not cause a loss of consciousness.
They may alter emotions or change the way things look, smell, feel, taste and sound.
They may also result in the individual jerking of a body part, such as arm or leg, and spontaneous sensory symptoms such as tingling, dizziness and flashing lights.
- Complex partial seizures:
These seizures involve a change or loss of consciousness or awareness.
During a complex partial seizure, you may state into space and not respond normally to your environment or perform repetitive movements, such as hand rubbing, chewing, swallowing, or walking in circles.
2. Generalized Seizures: Seizures that appear to involve all areas of the brain are called generalized seizures. Different types of generalized seizures are
- Absence seizures:
Absence seizures often occur in the children and characterized by staring into space or subtle body movements such as eye blinking or lip-smacking. These seizures may occur in the clusters and cause a brief loss of awareness.
- Tonic Seizures:
Tonic seizures cause stiffening of muscles. These seizures usually affect muscles in the back, arms, and legs and may cause to fall to the ground.
- Myoclonic seizures:
Myoclonic seizures usually appear as sudden brief jerks or twitches of your arms and legs.
- Atonic Seizures:
Atonic seizures, also known as drop seizures, cause a loss of muscle control, which may cause to suddenly collapse or fall down.
- Clonic seizures:
Clonic seizures are associated with repeated or rhythmic, jerking muscle movements. These seizures usually affect the neck, face, and arms.
- Tonic-Clonic seizures:
There are the most dramatic type of epileptic seizures and can cause an abrupt loss of consciousness, body stiffening and shaking, and sometimes loss of bladder control or biting your tongue.
How can epilepsy be treated
- Most people with epilepsy can be successfully treated with anti-epileptic medication (AED) which can prevent seizures from occurring.
- To achieve the best seizures control possible with medication, follow these steps-
- Take medications exactly as prescribed.
- Never stop taking your medication without talking to your doctor.
- Notify your doctor immediately if you feel discomfort after taking medicines.
Do’s During Epilepsy
- Do stay calm. Let the seizure take its course. To protect the person from injury ( remove harmful objects from nearby). If necessary, ease the person to the floor.
- Do cushion their head. Place something soft under the head.
- Do loosen anything tight around the neck
- Monitor the time how long the jerking lasts.
- Do aid breathing by gently placing them in the recovery position once the seizures have finished.
- For recovery position – Do gently roll the person on to his/her side as the convulsive seizures subside to allow saliva or other fluids to drain away and keep the airway clear.
- Always stay with the person until recovery is complete.
Do not Do During Epilepsy
- Do not restrain the person’s movement and also do not try to move them unless they are not in danger.
- Never try to put anything in the mouth. The person will not swallow his/her tongue.
- Do not give anything to the person to eat or drink until they are fully recovered.
- Always try to avoid the act in a way that could frighten them, such as making abrupt movements or shouting at them.
This article will make you completely aware of epilepsy, causes of epilepsy, types of seizures and does and don’t during epilepsy.
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